Sensors & Transducer: Definition, Classification & selection of sensors, Measurement of displacement using Potentiometer, LVDT & Optical Encoder, Measurement of force using strain gauge, Measurement of pressure using LVDT based diaphragm & piezoelectric sensor.
Measurement of temperature using Thermistor, Thermocouple & RTD, Concept of thermal imaging, Measurement of position using Hall effect sensors, Proximity sensors: Inductive & Capacitive, Use of proximity sensor as accelerometer and vibration sensor,
Flow Sensors: Ultrasonic & Laser,
Level Sensors: Ultrasonic & Capacitive.
Virtual Instrumentation: Graphical programming techniques, Data types, Advantage of Virtual Instrumentation techniques, Concept of WHILE & FOR loops, Arrays, Clusters & graphs,
Structures: Case, Sequence & Formula nodes, Need of software based instruments for industrial automation.
Data Acquisition Methods: Basic block diagram, Analog and Digital IO, Counters, Timers,
Types of ADC: successive approximation and sigma-delta,
Types of DAC: Weighted Resistor and R-2R, Ladder type, Use of Data Sockets for Networked Communication.
Intelligent Sensors: General Structure of smart sensors & its components,
Characteristic of smart sensors: Self calibration, Self-testing & self-communicating, Application of smart sensors: Automatic robot control & automobile engine control.