PN junction diode: Introduction of semiconductor materials; Semiconductor diode: Depletion layer, V-I characteristics, ideal and practical, diode resistance, capacitance, diode equivalent circuits, transition and diffusion capacitance, Zener diodes breakdown mechanism (Zener and avalanche).
Diode application: Series, parallel and series, parallel diode configuration, half and full wave rectification, clippers, clampers, Zener diode as shunt regulator, voltage-multiplier circuits special purpose two terminal devices : light-emitting diodes, Varactor (Varicap) diodes, tunnel diodes, liquid crystal displays.
Bipolar junction transistors and field effect transistor: Bipolar junction transistor: Transistor construction, operation, amplification action, common base, common emitter, common collector configuration dc biasing BJTs: operating point, fixed-bias, emitter bias, voltage-divider bias configuration. Collector feedback, emitter-follower configuration. Bias stabilization. CE, CB, CC amplifiers and AC analysis of single stage CE amplifier (re Model), Field effect transistor: Construction and characteristic of JFETs. AC analysis of CS amplifier, MOSFET (depletion and enhancement) type, transfer characteristic.
Operational amplifiers: Introduction and block diagram of Op-Amp, ideal & practical characteristics of Op-Amp, differential amplifier circuits, practical Op-Amp circuits (inverting amplifier, non-inverting amplifier, unity gain amplifier, summing amplifier, integrator, differentiator), Op-Amp parameters: input offset voltage, output offset voltage, input biased current, input offset current differential and common-mode operation.
Electronic instrumentation and measurements: Digital voltmeter: Introduction, RAMP techniques digital multimeters: Introduction Oscilloscope: introduction, basic principle, CRT, block diagram of oscilloscope, simple, measurement of voltage, current phase and frequency using CRO, introduction of digital storage oscilloscope and comparison of DSO with analog oscilloscope.