Hydrologic cycle, precipitation and its forms, rainfall measurement and estimation of mean rainfall, frequency
analysis of point rainfall. Mass curve, hyetograph, depth-area-duration curves and intensity-duration-frequency
relationship. Hydrologic processes-Interception, infiltration, measurement and indices. Evaporation – Estimation
and measurement. Runoff – Factors affecting, measurement, and stage – discharge rating curve, estimation of peak runoff rate and volume, rational method, Cook’s method and SCS curve number method.
Geomorphology of watersheds – Linear, aerial and relief aspects of watersheds- stream order, drainage density
and stream frequency. Hydrograph – Components, base flow separation, unit hydrograph theory, S-curve,
synthetic hydrograph, applications and limitations. Stream gauging – discharge rating curves, flood peak, design
flood and computation of probable flood. Flood routing – channel and reservoir routing. Drought – classification
causes and impacts, drought management strategy.
Soil erosion – Introduction, causes and types – geological and accelerated erosion, agents, factors affecting and
effects of erosion. Water erosion – Mechanics and forms – splash, sheet, rill, gully, ravine and stream bank
erosion. Gullies – Classification, stages of development. Soil loss estimation – Universal soil loss equation
(USLE) and modified USLE. Rainfall erosivity – estimation by KE>25 and EI30 methods. Soil erodibility -topography, crop management and conservation practice factors. Measurement of soil erosion – Runoff plots, soil samplers.
Water erosion control measures – agronomical measures – contour farming, strip cropping, conservation tillage
and mulching. Engineering measures– Bunds and terraces. Bunds – contour and graded bunds – design. Terraces – level and graded, broad base terraces, bench terraces – planning, design and layout procedure, contour stonewall and trenching.
Gully and ravine reclamation – principles of gully control – vegetative measures, temporary structures and
diversion drains. Grassed waterways and design. Wind erosion- Factors affecting, mechanics, soil loss estimation
and control measures – vegetative, mechanical measures, wind breaks and shelter belts and stabilization of sand
dunes. Land capability classification. Rate of sedimentation, silt monitoring and storage loss in tanks.