Introduction : Basic concepts of free surface flows, velocity and pressure distribution, Mass, energy and momentum principle for prismatic and non-prismatic channels critical, subcritical and super-critical type of flows. Critical depth, concepts of specific energy and specific force. Chezy’s and Manning’s equations for uniform flow in open channel, Velocity distribution, most efficient channel section, compound sections.
Energy-Depth relationship: Application of specific energy principle for interpretation of open channel phenomena, flow through vertical and horizontal contractions. Equation of gradually varied flow and its limitations, flow classification and surface profiles, integration of varied flow equation by analytical, graphical and numerical methods. Measurments of discharge & velocity – Venturi flume, Standing wave flume, Parshall flume, Broad crested weir, Current meter and Floats.
Rapidly varied flow: Hydraulic jump; Evaluation of the jump elements in rectangular channels on horizontal and sloping beds, energy dissipater, open channel surge, celerity of the gravity wave, deep and shallow water waves.
Impulse momentum equation- Impact of Jets-plane and curved- stationary and moving plates. Pumps: Positive displacement pumps – reciprocating pumps , centrifugal pumps, operation, velocity triangles, performance curves, Cavitation, Multi staging, Selection of pumps.
UNIT V: Rotodynamic Machines, Pelton Turbine, equations for jet and rotor size, efficiency, spear valve, reaction turbines, Francis and Kaplan type, Head on reaction turbine, unit quantities, similarity laws and specific speed, cavitation, characteristic curves.