Fundamental principles of genetics, gene interaction, multiple alleles, complementation, linkage, recombination and linkage mapping, extra-chromosomal inheritance, chromosomes basis of heredity, Sex determination, sex linked, sex limited and sex, influenced inheritance.
Genome organization: Genome organization in prokaryotes and eukaryotes – special features of eukaryotic gene structure and organization, genome organization in mitochondria and chloroplast, DNA content and C-value paradox. Methods to measure DNA content variation – Various types of DNA sequences (simple sequences, repetitive sequences, nonsense sequences, tandem gene clusters, satellites)
Gene structure, DNA & RNA as a genetic material, packaging of DNA as chromosome, central dogma of molecular biology, DNA replication, DNA repair. Linkage and recombination, crossing over and genetic mapping, gene mapping by two point and three point test crosses, Cell cycle regulation and apoptosis.
Genetic mutation, micro-deletion, Genetic syndrome, Techniques to detect mutation, Transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, genetic code, reverse transcription, mRNA processing. Role of sigma factor in transcription, role of promoters and enhancers, mechanism and regulation of transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
DNA replication process in prokaryotes & Eukaryotes, Activity of DNA polymerases and topoisomerases, Reverse transcriptase, Translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes Basic principles of gene cloning and r-DNA technology, genetic code, properties of genetic code, wobble hypothesis, Molecular chaperones.