UV – Visible Spectroscopy: Introduction, Electromagnetic Radiation, Laws relating to absorption radiation, Absorption Instruments, Ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy, Calorimeters, Double Beam spectrophotometer (Optical Diagram & Block Diagram) Microprocessor based Spectrophotometer (Block Diagram)
Infrared Spectroscopy, Basic Components of IR Spectrophotometers, Type of Infrared Spectrophotometers, Sample Handling Techniques
Flame photometers: principle, constructional details of flame photometers, types of flame photometers, types of flame photometers, clinical flame photometers, accessories for flame photometer, expression for concentration, interferences in flame photometry, procedure for determinations. Atomic Absorption Spectrometers: Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Atomic Absorption Instrumentation, Sources of interferences, meter scale.
Mass Spectrometers: Basic Mass Spectrometer, Principle of operation, Type of Mass Spectrometers, components of Mass Spectrometers, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer, trapped ion analyzers, ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectrometer, quadruple ion trap mass spectrometer, applications of mass spectrometry, gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer, liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer, tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy, Principle of NMR, types of NMR spectrometers, constructional details of NMR spectrometer, variation T-60A NMR spectrometer, sensitivity enhancement for analytical NMR-spectroscopy, Fourier transform NMR spectroscopy.