UPTU Notes
Mechanical Syllabus Syllabus



Review of Fundamental Concepts and Definitions:

Introduction- Basic Concepts: System, Control Volume, Surrounding, Boundaries, Universe, Types of Systems, Macroscopic and Microscopic view points, Concept of Continuum, Thermodynamic Equilibrium, State, Property, Process, Exact & Inexact Differentials, Cycle Reversibility Quasi – static Process, Irreversible Process, Causes of Irreversibility Energy and its forms, Work and heat (sign convention), Gas laws, Ideal gas, Real gas, Law of corresponding states, Property of mixture of gases, electrical, magnetic, gravitational, spring and shaft work.

Zeroth law of thermodynamics: Concept of Temperature and its’ measurement, Temperature scales.

First law of thermodynamics: First Law for Flow Processes – Derivation of general energy equation for a control volume; Steady state steady flow processes including throttling; Examples of steady flow devices; Unsteady processes; examples of steady and unsteady I law applications for system and control volume. Limitations of first law of thermodynamics, PMM-I. Steady flow systems and their analysis, Steady flow energy equation, Boilers, Condensers, Turbine, Throttling process, Pumps etc.



Second law of thermodynamics: Thermal reservoirs, Energy conversion, Heat engines, Efficiency, Reversed heat engine, Heat pump, Refrigerator, Coefficient of Performance, Kelvin Planck and Clausius statement of second law of thermodynamics, Equivalence of the two statements. Reversible and irreversible processes, Carnot cycle and Carnot engine, Carnot theorem and it’s corollaries, Thermodynamic Temperature Scale, PMM-II.

Entropy: Clausius inequality, Concept of Entropy, Entropy change of pure substance in different thermodynamic processes, Tds equation, Principle of entropy increase, T-S diagram, Statement of the third law of thermodynamics.



Availability and Irreversibility: Available and unavailable energy, Availability and Irreversibility, Second law efficiency, Helmholtz & Gibb’s function.

Thermodynamic relations: Conditions for exact differentials. Maxwell relations, Clapeyron equation, Joule-Thompson coefficient and Inversion curve. Coefficient of volume expansion, Adiabatic and Isothermal compressibility.



Properties of steam and Rankine cycle: Pure substance, Property of Pure Substance (steam), Triple point, Critical point, Saturation states, Subcooled liquid state, Superheated vapour state, Phase transformation process of water, Graphical representation of pressure, volume and temperature, P-T, P-V and P-h diagrams, T-S and  H-S diagrams, use of property diagram, Steam-Tables & Moller chart, Dryness factor and it’s measurement, processes involving steam in closed and open systems. Simple Rankine cycle.

Air-water vapour mixture and Psychrometry: Psychometric terms and their definitions, Psychometric chart, Different Psychometric processes and their representation on Psychometric chart.



Refrigeration Cycles: Reversed Carnot Cycle for gas and vapour. Refrigeration capacity, unit of refrigeration. Air Refrigeration cycles; Reversed Brayton Cycle and Bell Coleman Cycle. Vapour compression refrigeration cycle; simple saturated cycle and actual vapour compression refrigeration cycle. Analysis of cycles, effect of superheating, sub-cooling and change in evaporator and condenser pressure on performance of vapour compression refrigeration cycle. Refrigerants; their classification and desirable properties. Vapour absorption refrigeration system

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